Companies from 20 countries are involved in the supply chain of components that end up in ISIS explosives, a study found on Thursday, suggesting governments and firms need to do more to track the flow of cables, chemicals and other equipment.
The European Union-mandated study showed that 51 companies from countries including Turkey, Brazil, and the United States produced, sold or received the more than 700 components used by ISIS to build improvised explosive devices (IEDs).
IEDs are now being produced on a "quasi-industrial scale" by the militant group, which uses both industrial components that are regulated and widely available equipment such as fertiliser chemicals and mobile phones, according to Conflict Armament Research (CAR), which undertook the 20-month study.
ISIS controls large swathes of Iraq and Syria. NATO member Turkey shares borders with both countries and has stepped up security to prevent the flow of weapons and insurgents to the hardline Sunni group.
A total of 13 Turkish firms were found to be involved in the supply chain, the most in any one country. That was followed by India with seven.
"These findings support growing international awareness that IS forces in Iraq and Syria are very much self-sustaining - acquiring weapons and strategic goods, such as IED components, locally and with ease," said James Bevan, CAR's executive director.
The sale of these cheap and readily available parts, some of which are not subject to government export licences, is far less scrutinised and regulated than the transfer of weapons. The study found that ISIS is able to acquire some components in as a little as a month after their lawful supply to firms in the region, suggestion a lack of oversight in the supply chain.
"Companies having effective accounting systems to establish where the goods went after them would act as a deterrent," Bevan said.
'Refused To Cooperate'
Bevan said the Turkish government refused to cooperate with CAR's investigation so the group was not able to determine the efficacy of Ankara's regulations regarding the tracking of components.
Turkish government officials did not reply to requests for comment. CAR gained access to the components through partners including the Washington-backed Kurdish YPG in Syria, the Iraqi Federal Police, the Kurdistan Region Security Council and forces of the Kurdistan Regional Government.
The components were recovered during major battles around the Iraqi towns of al Rabia, Kirkuk, Mosul, and Tikrit and the Syrian town of Kobani. The report's authors said they attempted to contact the companies linked to the components, adding the firms did not respond or were not able to account for where the goods went after they left their custody.
Seven Indian companies manufactured most of the detonators, detonating cord, and safety fuses documented by CAR. Those were all legally exported under government-issued licences from India to entities in Lebanon and Turkey, CAR found.
Earlier Indian company Exomet plastics, now part of EPC, supplied 2,292 tons of precursor chemicals to Iraq, which were used in chemical attacks in Halabja by the Saddam regime. Although they later said that they had supplied chemicals to be used in pesticides.
Companies from Brazil, Romania, Russia, the Netherlands, China, Switzerland, Austria and Czech Republic were also involved, the report found.