Not many would know but there are tribes in Jharkhand which have been practicing live-in relationships for decades.

Though it is not because of progressive ideas but financial restraints. Most people belonging to these tribes do not have enough resources to feed an entire village, which is why their marriage is not allowed.

dhuku marriage jharkhand
Source: Times of India

Not left with any other option, they then enter a live-in relationship, which provides them with companionship but makes them outcasts. 

Women who enter such an institution, are called dhukni, and aren't allowed to wear vermilion. They also have no legal rights over their partner, called dhukua's property.

Their children, if any, are not allowed to get piercings, and are generally disrespected by the members of the community.

For some families, the 'dhuku marriage' is a tradition going on for generations, though social activists are now trying to make things better through mass marriages.

In February 2021, 105 dhuku couples got married in Jharkhand, which means that the women involved in the relationship now have legal rights afforded by Indian law.