Today (22nd July, 2019), India successfully launched its second mission (Chandrayaan-2) to the moon in a hope to go where no country has ever gone before- the south pole of the moon.
Why did ISRO decide to explore the South Pole of the moon?
According to ISRO, the South Pole of the moon remains longer in the shadow as compared to the North Pole, which is why, scientists believe that there could be high chances of water being present in permanently shadowed areas around it.
It is also said that the South Pole region has craters that are cold traps and contain a fossil record of the early Solar System so this could help in increasing the understanding of space.
Earlier, Chadrayaan-1 discovered evidence for water molecules but more studies were to be conducted in regards to the extent of water molecule distribution on the surface, below the surface and the tenuous lunar exosphere to address the origin of water on Moon. So this time scientists are hoping to find the answers.