Amidst tensions hovering over Jammu & Kashmir, Union Home Minister Amit Shah announced a resolution at Rajya Sabha that all clauses of Article 370, which gave special priveledges to the state have been revoked entirely.
This announcement has divided India, with some condemning and some supporting while some confused over what is happening. So here is everything to know about the status of Jammu and Kashmir and the people living there before and after the revocation of Article 370.
1. Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir
Before Article 370 – J&K was the only state which had its own constitution. The article provided J&K provisions of the Constitution which were not applicable to other states of the country which included special autonomy, separate state laws, etc. They also had to follow Section 1 and Article 370 of the Indian Constitution.
After Article 370 – After the revocation of 370, there will be no separate constitution for J&K and its citizens.
2. Citizenship Of People
Before Article 370 – The citizens of the state enjoyed dual citizenship which was of the state and India both.
After Article 370 – The citizens have just one citizenship which will be prevalent to all other citizens of the state.
3. Ownership Of Property
Before Article 370 – Only people who had citizenship of J&K could buy and sell property.
After Article 370 – Indian citizens from other states of the country can buy and sell property in J&K.
4. Status Of The Flag
Before Article 370 – The J&K State had two different flags of India and the state.
After Article 370 – There will be no separate flag for J&K and it will be at par with the entire country.
5. Fundamental Rights Of Citizens
Before Article 370 – The citizens of J&K did not have all the Fundamental Rights which were enjoyed by the rest of the country due to its special status. This article only provided them with rights in accordance with the state which included property rights and state rights.
After Article 370 – The Fundamental Rights of the people of J&K will be the same as enjoyed by the Indian citizens of other states.
6. Application Of Laws
Before Article 370 – The citizens of J&K had separate laws related to citizenship, ownership of property, and fundamental rights.
After Article 370 – There will be no separate laws for the citizens of J&K. It will be the same as the rest of the country.
7. Central Laws
Before Article 370 – Only state laws could apply before and the central government had no authority to declare financial emergencies.
After Article 370 – Central laws can directly be applied and it can declare financial emergencies under article 360 in J&K.
8. Geographical Changes
Before Article 370 – Jammu and Kashmir was a state of the country with separate provisions where Ladakh was a part of the state.
After Article 370 – J&K is a Union Territory now with legislature while Ladakh is an independent Union Territory without any legislature.
9. National Anthem
Before Article 370 – J&K had separate national anthems during the application of the article which was of the state and the country.
After Article 370 – There will be only one national anthem for the entire country.
10. Application of laws by the Parliament
Before Article 370 – Except for defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications, Parliament needs the state government’s approval for applying any laws.
After Article 370 – The Parliament can implement any law without the state’s approval which also includes changing the state’s name and its boundaries.